The participation of the european community and the member states in the international climate change regimes is a complex issue in the case of the kyoto protocol this is rendered more complicated by the fact that for the purposes of article 4 of the kyoto protocol the membership of the european community and member states is frozen at a particular point in time. Ip 02 794 brussels 31 may 2002 european union ratifies the kyoto protocol the european union has ratified the kyoto protocol today this act reaffirms the commitment of the eu and all its member states to pursue multilateral solutions to issues of global concern. As of june 2013 there are 192 parties to the kyoto protocol to the united nations framework convention on climate change which aims to combat global warming this total includes 191 states 189 united nations member states as well as the cook islands and niue and one supranational union the european union. Introduction the eu enlargement the international climate change regime the ec and the member states in the kyoto protocol the flexible mechanisms of the kyoto protocol ec compliance with the international climate regime the ec principle of loyal cooperation and the obligations of the kyoto protocol conclusions. The costs of the kyoto protocol in the european union joint program reprint o journal article here disaggregated to separately include 9 european community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors we compare our results with that of four energy economic models that have provided detailed analyses of european
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